From a historic point of view, for more than 2,000 years hemp has been an important raw material for industry. Hemp fibres were used for technical textiles such as ropes, hawsers, boat canvas as well as clothing textiles and paper. In the 1990s, hemp was rediscovered throughout the world as an important raw material for bio-based products in a sustainable bioeconomy and ever since then has been in high demand. The most important cultivation and manufacturing regions are Europe and China, and the most important applications are bio-based composites (natural fibre reinforced plastics) as well as construction and insulation materials. The bio-based materials sector in particular still has large, untapped market potentials for both the reinforcement of mineral oil-based plastics and, to an increasing degree, for bio-based plastics.